Music as a Branch of
Mathematics
A document and presentation prepared for the
Mathematics Across the Community College Curriculum
MAC^3
2007 Winter Institute
by
Eduardo J. Calle
Miami Dade College
January 12, 2007
Abstract
This presentation explores music through a variety of
mathematical lenses including arithmetic, set theory, algebra, probability,
statistics, geometry, and calculus. Music composed, arranged, and recorded for
this address and featured throughout the presentation will illustrate
relationships inherent between music and mathematics including comparisons
between Pythagorean and equaltempered tuning and mathematical analyses of
musical elements including loudness, sound waves, and frequencies. Digital
recording software was used to analyze data in order to quantify differences in
rhythmic feel between musical phrases played by Sonny Rollins and John
Coltrane. Additionally, jazz improvisations will generate music as functional
set theory.
Table of Contents
Page
Musical mathematicians.................................................................................................................. 5
Pythagoras and the musical ratios................................................................................................... 6
Equaltempered tuning................................................................................................................... 12
Standardized tuning....................................................................................................................... 13
MIDI note numbers and frequencies............................................................................................. 14
Differences between Pythagorean and equaltempered tuning...................................................... 18
Math around writerÕs block........................................................................................................... 20
Sound wave properties and formulas............................................................................................ 25
Loudness........................................................................................................................................ 26
The geometry of chords and scales................................................................................................ 29
Set theory and jazz improvisation................................................................................................. 30
Music as mathematics................................................................................................................... 33
Math and musical feel.................................................................................................................... 38
References...................................................................................................................................... 46
Appendix A................................................................................................................................... 50
Appendix B................................................................................................................................... 51
Appendix C................................................................................................................................... 52
Appendix D................................................................................................................................... 53
Appendix E.................................................................................................................................... 54
Appendix F.................................................................................................................................... 55
Appendix G................................................................................................................................... 59
Figures
Figure 1................................................................................................................................... 6
Figure 2................................................................................................................................... 7
Figure 3................................................................................................................................... 7
Figure 4................................................................................................................................... 8
Figure 5................................................................................................................................. 11
Figure 6................................................................................................................................. 13
Figure 7................................................................................................................................. 17
Figure 8................................................................................................................................. 19
Figure 9................................................................................................................................. 22
Figure 10............................................................................................................................... 23
Figure 11............................................................................................................................... 24
Figure 12............................................................................................................................... 26
Figure 13............................................................................................................................... 28
Figure 14............................................................................................................................... 29
Figure
15............................................................................................................................... 30
Figure
16............................................................................................................................... 31
Figure
17............................................................................................................................... 33
Figure 18............................................................................................................................... 34
Figure 19............................................................................................................................... 35
Figure 20............................................................................................................................... 37
Figure 21............................................................................................................................... 40
Figure 22............................................................................................................................... 41
Tables
Table 1.................................................................................................................................... 9
Table 2.................................................................................................................................. 20
Table 3.................................................................................................................................. 42
Music as a Branch of Mathematics
Musical
Mathematicians
During his
presidential address regarding mathematics and music to the Mathematical
Association of America on September 6^{th}, 1923, Brown UniversityÕs
Raymond Clare Archibald celebrated the ties binding mathematics and music from
a historical perspective. From Hermann von HelmholtzÕs suggestion that
math and music share a Òhidden bondÓ visible through the study of acoustics by Joseph
Fourier, to the proclamation by Gottfried Leibniz that Òmusic is a hidden
exercise in arithmetic, of a mind unconscious of dealing with numbersÓ (Archibald,
2006, ¦ 3), the history of mathematics is replete with great spirits fascinated
and inspired by music. To those in attendance at Vassar College, Archibald listed musical
mathematicians including Pythagoras, PierreLouis Moreau de Maupertuis,
William Herschel, J‡nos Bolyia,
Augustus De Morgan, Henri Poincaire, Joseph Lagrange,
and Albert Einstein to name a few.
During a 1929
interview for The Saturday Evening Post entitled What Life Means to Einstein, George Sylvester Viereck
writes that physicist, mathematician, and violinist Albert
Einstein stated, ÒIf I were not a physicist, I would probably be a musician. I
often think in music. I live my daydreams in music. I see my life in terms of
musicÉ I get most joy in life out of musicÓ (dos Santos, 2003). Einstein
also said that, ÒImagination is more important than knowledge. For knowledge is
limited to all we now know and understand, while imagination embraces the
entire world, and all there ever will be to know and understandÓ (ThinkExist.com,
2006).
History shows
that Einstein
was not alone. Fourier, Leonhard Euler, Daniel Bernoulli, and Johannes Kepler
contributed immensely to the science of mathematics inspired or challenged by
music. Nurtured by earthÕs atmosphere, supported by mathematical pillars
anchored in study, fueled by imagination, necessitated by the need of a
creative soul to share unique visions, and realized by a tireless dedication to
the celebration of talented passion, music fills the air with sound, minds with
wonder, and hearts with joy.
Pythagoras
and the Musical Ratios
The Greek
philosopher, mathematician, and musician Pythagoras defined the octave as a
ratio of 1:2 by discovering that two tones produced on either side of a string
bridged in a manner dividing the string into two sections measuring a single
unit on one side of the bridge and two units on the other differed in pitch or
frequency by one octave (Archibald,
1923). Figure 1 illustrates a string designed to produce one distinct pitch
when selecting the segment located on the right side of the bridge and a second
pitch sounding one octave higher when plucking, striking, or bowing the segment
of the string stretching to the left of the bridge.
Figure 1. An illustration of a musical octave defined by Pythagoras as a ratio of 1:2.
1 (higher octave)
2 (lower octave)
3
2
1
0
^
Bridge
Figure
1. Pythagoras defined the interval of one octave as a ratio of 1:2. The figure
depicts a string divided into three equal parts where a bridge demarcates a
ratio of 1:2 on the string. Plucking, striking, or bowing the string segment
located left of the bridge will produce a tone one octave higher in pitch than
the segment located right of the bridge. The numbers illustrate unit lengths with
numbers 0 and 3 representing the endpoints of the string.
By plucking, striking, or bowing a singlestringed Greek musical instrument called a monochord depicted in Figure 2, Pythagoras also defined musical intervals of one fifth as a ratio of 2:3 and one fourth as a ratio of 3:4. The methodology applied by Pythagoras to define ratios for the fifth and fourth is illustrated in Figures 3 and 4.
Figure 2. Drawing of a monochord.
Figure
2. The monochord is a onestring musical instrument whose string is tightly
suspended over a soundboard. This drawing of a monochord was obtained from the
website: http://www.practicalphysics.org/go/Experiment_130.html
Figure 3. An illustration of a musical fifth
defined by Pythagoras a ratio of 2:3.
2 (onefifth higher than root tone), 3 (root tone)
5 4
3
2
1
0
^
Bridge
Figure
3. Pythagoras defined the interval of one fifth as a ratio of 2:3. The figure
depicts a string divided into five equal parts where a bridge demarcates a
ratio of 2:3 on the string. Plucking, striking, or bowing the string segment
located left of the bridge will produce a tone one fifth higher in pitch than
the segment located right of the bridge. The numbers illustrate unit lengths
with numbers 0 and 5 representing the endpoints of the string.
Figure 4. An illustration of a musical fourth
defined by Pythagoras a ratio of 3:4.
7 6
5
4
3
2
1
0
^
Bridge
Figure
4. Pythagoras defined the interval of one fourth as a ratio of 3:4. The figure
depicts a string divided into seven equal parts where a bridge demarcates a
ratio of 3:4 on the string. Plucking, striking, or bowing the string segment
located left of the bridge will produce a tone one fourth higher in pitch than
the segment located right of the bridge. The numbers illustrate unit lengths
with numbers 0 and 7 representing the endpoints of the string.
Based on the findings by Pythagoras illustrated in the preceding section, we can algebraically determine ratios for the remaining tones of the sevennote musical mode called Phrygian by the Greeks and known today as the Dorian mode. Table 1 enumerates the names of the original Greek modes and their corresponding modern counterparts (Frazer, 2006). Currently, the second mode of the CMajor scale is called the DDorian mode and contains the notes DEFGABC in ascending order.
Table 1. Greek modes names and musical notation (CMajor)
Greek name 
Modern name 
Music notation 
Lydian 
Ionian 

Phrygian 
Dorian 

Dorian 
Phrygian 

Hypolydian 
Lydian 

Hypophrygian 
Mixolydian 

Hypodorian 
Aeolian 

Mixolydian 
Locrian 

Table
1. The left most column of the table lists the original Greek names for each
mode of the major scale. The remaining columns list the modern names and
corresponding musical notation for each of the seven modes.
By applying the
ratios provided by Pythagoras, it is possible to determine ratios for other fourths
and fifths contained within the Dorian mode. Based on ratios for the octave of
1:2 and the fifth of 2:3, we can determine that the ratio for the note E2
sounding onefifth higher than A (2/3) is 4:9 (see Figure 4). In order to
physically transpose the newly created fifth down one octave so that it sounds
within the range between notes D1 and D2 one would need to double the length of
the string producing the newly formed ratio and corresponding tone.
Algebraically, such a transposition can be expressed in the form or the ratio for
the note E2. The ratio for B, the sixth note of the DDorian mode, can
subsequently be determined by applying a ratio of 2/3 to the value of E1, . The ratio for the note C2 can be found by finding an
interval one fourth higher than G or and the ratio
for the note F can be found by generating a ratio for a note one fifth lower
than C2 (9:16). The ratio for a note F sounding one fifth lower than C2 (9:16)
can be found by multiplying the ratio for C2 (9:16) by the inverse ratio of one
fifth or the ratio 3:2. Consequently, we can generate the ratio for F1 by
calculating the expression .
Figure 5. Pythagorean ratios for the notes defining the DDorian mode.
D1
E
F G
A
B
C2 D2 (octave) E2
1/1
8/9 27/32 3/4
2/3 16/27 9/16 1/2
4/9
Figure
5. The figure details the computed ratios of the DDorian mode based on the
findings of Pythagoras. Since a fifth is produced by a string length ratio of
2:3, consecutive fifths are produced by a ratio of 4:9. Once having computed a
ratio for consecutive fifths the user can find ratios for the remaining
elements by finding ratios for fourths and fifths sounding above and below each
newly computed ratio.
Applying a different algebraic approach we can compute the ratio for a whole step or distance between the fourth (G) and fifth (A) mode degrees in Figure 5 by finding a value for a ratio ÒxÓ so that the ratio 3:4 multiplied by a number ÒxÓ produces the ratio 2:3. Solving the equation generates the ratio of 8/9 or 8:9 for a whole step. Applying this constant value for a whole step, we can generate the ratio for E, the second note displayed in Figure 4 by solving the expression or . Inversely, since the distance between the fourth (G) and the third (F) of the Dorian mode is also a whole step, we can find a ratio value for F such that or 27/32. We subsequently discover the ratio for the sixth note of the mode (B) is 16/27 by multiplying the ratio 2/3 representing the fifth (A) by 8/9. Lastly, the ratio generating the seventh note (C) can be found by solving the expression or 9/16.
EqualTempered
Tuning
The piano keyboard features an 88note keyboard that divides each octave into twelve semitones or half steps. Based on Pythagoras discovery that the ratio of one octave is 1:2, we can begin to define the semitone by first expressing the relationship between two tones separated by one octave. A ratio of 1:2 between note (n) and its octave can be expressed as n:2n. Exponentially, a note n can be expressed as (1 * n) or (2^{0 }* n) while 2n can be rewritten as (2^{1 }* n). In order to divide one octave into twelve equal semitones as detailed in Figure 6, we can divide the distance between (n * 2^{0}) and (n * 2^{1}) into twelve equal segments written (n * 2^{0/12}), (n * 2^{1/12}), (n * 2^{2/12}), (n * 2^{3/12}), (n * 2^{4/12}), (n * 2^{5/12}), (n * 2^{6/12}), (n * 2^{7/12}), (n * 2^{8/12}), (n * 2^{9/12}), (n * 2^{10/12}), (n * 2^{11/12}), and (n * 2^{12/12}) respectively. The resulting frequencies, dividing the octave into twelve equidistant semitones, produce a chromatic scale and define the most widely used Western music tuning system called equaltempered tuning. Additionally, the distance between adjacent semitones is divided into one hundred units called cents.
Figure 6. A graphic interpretation of one octave
divided into twelve semitones.
f2^{0}^{/12 }f2^{1/12 }f2^{2/12 }f2^{3/12 }f2^{4/12 }f2^{5/12 } f2^{6/12} f2^{7/12} f2^{8/12} f2^{9/12} f2^{10/12} f2^{11/12} f2^{12/12}
n0 n1 n2 n3 n4 n5 n6 n7 n8 n9 n10 n11 n12
semitone
f1 f2 (octave)
A depiction of one octave divided into twelve semitones.
Figure
6. The graphic diagrams twelve semitones equally dividing one octave ranging
from semitone or frequency f to semitone f2. The distance between semitones is
defined as 2^{n/12} where n represents the number corresponding to the
position of the note in an ascending chromatic (12tone) scale. Note that 2^{0}
= 1 and 2^{0}:2^{1} is equivalent to 1:2 defining the
Pythagorean ratio for the octave.
Standardized
Tuning
Slonimsky (2001) credits French acoustician Joseph Sauveur (1653–1716) as the first person to calculate the number of vibrations by a specific pitch and also offered the first scientific explanation for upper partials of a fundamental tone called overtones. Tennenbaum (1991) states that Sauveur quantified that the note ÒdoÓ or middle C oscillated 256 times per second while studying tones created by organ pipes and vibrating strings. SauveurÕs collected writings, published by the French Academy of Science from 1700 to 1713 (Rasch, 2006), precede professor Rudolph HertzÕ (1847–1894) first transmission and reception of radio waves and measurements of the velocity and wavelength of electromagnetic waves by approximately 175 years (Jenkins, 2006). The number of completed cycles per second by a Òperiodic phenomenonÓ (Institute for Telecommunication Sciences, 2006) such as a sound wave is defined as one hertz (Hz) in honor or professor Hertz. Consequently, SauveurÕs measurement of middle C at 256 cycles per second translates to 256 Hz.
During the 1940s a global movement to standardize tuning led to the general adoption of 440 Hz as the corresponding frequency for the note ÒAÓ or ÒlaÓ sounding one sixth above middle C or ÒdoÓ. Based on SauveurÕs findings, the current tuning standard is somewhat higher than the tuning reference ranging between 427 and 430 Hz commonly used in Europe by composers such as Bach, Mozart, and Beethoven.
MIDI
Note Numbers and Frequencies
In addition to music technology contributions including the development of the Prophet 5 and Prophet 600 synthesizers, the American music technology company Sequential Circuits introduced a paper at the 1981 Audio Engineering Society (AES) convention proposing a new digital interface called the Universal Synthesizer Interface (USI) (Akins, 2007). In 1982, a consortium of manufacturers reviewed, tweaked, and accepted the work by Sequential Circuits developers as the standard electronic communication interface and called it Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI). MIDI has become a standard and indispensable creative tool for manufacturers and musicians facilitating communication between computers, synthesizers, and a wide range of electronic devices since the introduction of builtin MIDI interfaces on the Sequential Circuits Prophet 600 in 1981 and other popular synthesizers such as the Yamaha DX7 synthesizer in 1982.
Though a MIDI controller can feature as many as 128 keys, pads, or buttons capable of triggering a maximum 128 notes defined as MIDI note number integers 0  127, a fullsized MIDI synthesizer keyboard features eightyeight keys. As detailed by Valenti (1988), MIDI coding designates a specific number to each key on a standard keyboard ranging from A_{0 }= 21 on the left to C_{8} = 108 on the right. Note that the MIDI note numbers available on a controller featuring 128 keys or input sources will range from key C_{1} = 0 at the extreme left (lowest pitch) to G_{9} = 127 at the extreme right (highest pitch). Though MIDI allows the user great flexibility with respect to tuning, transposition, and a wide range of expressive parameters, the standard setting for all MIDI keyboards assigns note number 60 to C_{4} (middle C). When depressed, each key on the MIDI keyboard produces a frequency corresponding to a note on the musical staff.
Finding the corresponding equaltempered frequency for a note on a MIDI keyboard can be achieved by using MIDI note number 69 corresponding to A4_{ }on the keyboard. In this instance we will choose MIDI note number 69 as a constant or reference because the frequency corresponding to this note is the current tuning standard 440 Hz. It is important to note that producers, composers, conductors, orchestras, and musicians in a variety of musical settings and instances sometimes choose a slightly higher standard tuning frequency such as 444 Hz.
Given a frequency value for A4 such as 440 Hz, a corresponding MIDI note number (69), and discovering that an equaltempered semitone ÒnÓ ranging between MIDI note 0 and 127 can be expressed as 2^{n/12 }allows us to find the frequency for a MIDI note number (n – 69) positions away from A4_{ }(69) by computing the math expression (440 * 2^{(n69)/12}). Since the equaltempered octave is divided in increments of twelve and Pythagoras established that the ratio for an octave is 1:2, we can verify our findings by calculating the frequency values corresponding to notes any number of octaves lower or higher than the reference value for n (69). Note numbers corresponding to various octaves of n can be found by adding or subtracting multiples of twelve. For example, in order to find a MIDI note number one octave higher than 69 we simply compute 69 + 12 = 81 and plug the new note number into the expression this way; frequency in Hz of MIDI note number 81 = 440 * 2^{(8169)/12}. The solution for this expression renders a frequency value for MIDI note number 81 (A5) yields 880 Hz (440 * 2^{12/12} = 440 * 2 = 880 Hz) in accordance with the 1:2 ratio defining the octave. Similarly, MIDI note number 93 produces a frequency of 1760 Hz (440 * 2^{(9369)/12} = 440 * 2^{24/12} = 440 * 2^{2} = 1760). The frequency ratios corresponding to MIDI note numbers 69 (440 Hz) and 81 (880 Hz), and MIDI note numbers 69 (440 Hz) and 93 (880 Hz) are 1:2 and 1:4 respectively concurs the findings by Pythagoras. The MIDI note number for a note A2 sounding two octaves (2 * 12) lower than A4 can be calculated by first solving the expression 69 – 24 = 45. Therefore, the frequency in Hz of note number 45 is 110 Hz (440 * 2^{(4569)/12} = 440 * 2^{24/12} = 440 * 2^{2} = 440/4 = 110 Hz). Once again, the ratio of 4:1 between the frequencies corresponding to A_{4} (440 Hz) and A_{2} (110 Hz) respectively is in accordance with Pythagorean principles.
Musicians, students, and other parties interested in finding the corresponding MIDI note number for a given frequency can use logarithms to simplify the mathematic expression, f (frequency in Hz) = 440 * 2^{(n69)/12}. The expression can be simplified as detailed in Figure 7.
Figure 7. Method for finding the
corresponding MIDI note number for a given frequency
Original expression 
f = 440 * 2^{(n69)/12} 
Simplification step 1 
f/440 = 2^{(n69)/12} 
Simplification step 2 
log_{2}_{ }(f/440) = (n69)/12 
Simplification step 3 
12 * log_{2 }(f/440) = n – 69 
Formula for finding a MIDI note number given the frequency (Hz) of the MIDI note 
n = (12 * log_{2 }(f/440)) + 69 
Figure
7. Given the frequency (f) for a note in Hz, it is possible to find the
corresponding MIDI note number represented by the variable ÒnÓ using the
formula detailed and simplified in the figure.
Applying the formula detailed in Figure 7, we can verify the earlier mentioned assertion that the note A above middle C used by Bach, Mozart, and Beethoven between the late 17^{th} century and early 19^{th} centuries was somewhat lower than the reference A4 (440 Hz) commonly used today. Sauveur defined the frequency of middle C as 256 Hz. Applying the MIDI note number corresponding to middle C (60) and substituting a reference frequency of 256 Hz yields the expression Hz = 256 * 2^{(n60)/12}. Since the MIDI note number corresponding to A above middle C is 69, we can find the frequency (f) for A above middle C typically used in Europe by solving the expression f = 256 * 2^{(6960)/12}. We can therefore verify that traditional European tuning was lower (A4 = 430.54 Hz) than modern tuning (A4 = 440 Hz) by solving the expression using a calculator or by inserting the function [=256*(POWER(2,(6960)/12))] into a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet.
Macintosh users interested in finding MIDI note numbers for given frequencies and vice versa without having to physically compute the data can download a free note to frequency calculator widget courtesy of Jacklin Studios from the website located at http://www.jacklinstudios.com/software/notefreq/.
Differences
Between Pythagorean and EqualTempered Tuning
Though it is possible that Greek musicians may have been able to recall a fixed pitch from memory or used available reference tones such as those produced by bells, pipes, or environmental sources as a starting point, the ratios discovered by Pythagoras enabled musicians of the day to produce music without the need for a reference tuningnote. A comparison of frequencies values based on Pythagorean and equaltempered tuning ratios illustrates differences between both tuning systems and highlights the fact that intervals sounded by ancient Greek instruments and those produced by instruments built to function in an equaltempered tuning system sound slightly different.
Figure
8. The A major pentatonic scale.
Figure
8. The figure displays musical notation for notes constructing the A major
pentatonic scale in sequential perfect fifths and ascending stepwise order
within one octave respectively. Standard MIDI note names specifying note
placement on a piano keyboard are displayed above each note.
Figure 8 displays a musical staff containing five notes each separated by a perfect fifth. These notes also represent the elements of the A major pentatonic scale as detailed in the second measure of Figure 8. Using a reference frequency of 440 Hz for the note A4, Table 2 lists the corresponding frequency values for each note displayed in Figure 8 computed by applying Pythagorean ratios and the formula for equaltempered tuning (see page 13).
Table 2. Comparison of frequencies for the
Amajor pentatonic scale based on Pythagorean and equaltempered relationships.
Reference Freq. (Hz) 
Note name 
MIDI note # 
Pythagorean ratio (top) 
Pythagorean ratio
(bottom) 
Pythagorean freq. (Hz) 
Equaltempered freq. (Hz) 
440.00 
A4 
69 
1 
1 
440.00 
440.00 

A3 
57 
1 
2 
220.00 
220.00 

E4 
64 
3 
2 
330.00 
329.63 

B4 
71 
3 
2 
495.00 
493.88 

F#5 
78 
3 
2 
742.50 
739.99 

C#6 
85 
3 
2 
1113.75 
1108.73 

A3 
57 
1 
2 
220.00 
220.00 

B3 (from A3) 
59 
9 
8 
247.50 
246.94 

C#4 (from F#4) 
61 
3 
4 
278.44 
277.18 

E4 (from B3) 
64 
8 
9 
330.00 
329.63 

F#4 (from B3) 
66 
3 
2 
371.25 
369.99 
Table
2. The data displayed in the table details frequencies corresponding to the
notes displayed in Figure X based on Pythagorean ratios and equaltempered
tuning.
Math
Around WriterÕs Block
A dreaded and frustrating state of the creative psyche for a composer, writer, or improvising musician is sometimes termed writerÕs block, a slump, a funk, or a dryspell. When encountered, any type of block can delay or prevent the productive output of creative, talented, and dedicated artists by placing an array of cognitive and emotional roadblocks in the way of the creative process ranging from confusion, anxiety and frustration to creative paralysis and selfdoubt. Musicians encountering such a block might employ a mathematical lens focused on probability to uncover a myriad of new themes, variations, and permutations capable of serving as alternate routes to renewed creativity.
During a recent conversation regarding this presentation, Dr. Bernard Geltzer and the author queried the feasibility of determining the number of possible variations or permutations for a song. Possible answers to the original question emerged from our discussion triggering a startling reminder of the sheer magnitude of possible musical combinations available to the creative community.
Exploring the possible combinations of a twelvetone row, defined as a series of twelve nonrepeating tones situated within a oneoctave chromatic scale, produces a combination of twelve possible distinct pitches in the first position, eleven possible selections in the second position, ten possible notes in the third position decreasing in similar fashion down to one remaining pitch in the twelfth position. In mathematical terms, this twelvetone sequence can be expressed as twelvefactorial (12! = 12 * 11 * 10 * 9 * 8 * 7 * 6 * 5 * 4 * 3 * 2 *1) generating 479,001,600 possible nonrepeating sequences of twelve chromatic tones. Admittedly, most popular or commercially successful music is not based on such twelvetone sequences. Nonetheless, combinations numbering more than 479 million offer talented and interested parties a mammoth creative palette.
When exploring a more commercial music approach, computing the possible combination of seven nonrepeating tones confined within a oneoctave major scale generates 5,040 combinations (7!). If we change the parameters to include seven notes diatonic to a specific major scale without restricting the number of times a note may repeat the number of combinations grows to 7^{7} or 823,543 combinations. It is not beyond the scope of reason to imagine that at least one of these combinations may yield inspiration for a new creative work. And yes, that number is still based on restricting note choices to a single octave. This is an important point since many songs such as AmericaÕs National Anthem cover a range exceeding one octave. In fact, the traditional rendition of The Star Spangled Banner ranges one octave plus one fifth explaining why it is often a difficult song to perform for singers with limited ranges. Note that singers such as Whitney Houston and Mariah Carey, and instrumentalists including Arturo Sandoval and the author typically perform twooctave renditions of The Star Spangled Banner.
Figure
9. The five modes of the A major pentatonic scale.
Figure
9. The figure displays music notation for the five modes of the A major
pentatonic scale. Note that each mode represents a new sequential ordering of
the notes.
Students of jazz improvisation spend time learning to identify, construct, play and apply pentatonic scales and their derivative structures in a variety of musical situations. Though many amateur and professional musicians limit their musical vocabulary to include twelve major pentatonic scales each based on one of the 12 major keys (see Figure 9), the number of available scales containing five unique pitches within one octave produces 95,040 (12 * 11 * 10 * 9 * 8) scale combinations, each generating five modes or orderings beginning on consecutive scale degrees of the parent pentatonic scale (see Figure 20). In total, the number of pentatonic scales and their sequential orderings (modes) produces 475,200 (5 * 95,040) pentatonic combinations that can function as vehicles for composition, arranging, orchestration, improvisation, or exercises applied towards the development of technical proficiency. Anyone facing a creative musical block may take comfort knowing that the set of musical possibilities based on pentatonic scales numbers more than 475,000 combinations without introducing repeated notes.
Figure
10. Traditional rendition of Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star
Figure
10. The figure shows musical notation for the song Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star
in the key of C Major.
The version of the wellknown French melody Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star displayed in Figure 10 contains fortytwo notes and two rests. How many permutations of this version of the song are possible considering that all orderings follow the exact rhythmic pattern detailed in Figure 10? If we restrict the note choices for new permutations to be contained within a oneoctave C major scale ranging from C4 to B4 and disallowing substitutions of notes for rests or vice versa, each note could be substituted by one of the seven notes contained in the C major scale and each rest remains unchanged. Possible permutations given these parameters number 17,294,405 (7^{42} + 2). Figure 11 illustrates two such possible variations.
Figure
11. Two permutations based on Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star
Figure
11. The figure presents music notation for two possible permutations based on
the song Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star. The permutations apply a maximum of
seven rhythmically equivalent substitutions for each note or rest in the song
generating 17,294,405 (7^{42} + 2) possible permutations based on the
original version illustrated in Figure 7.
Sound
Wave Properties and Formulas
Huber and Runstein (2005) point out that the velocity of a sound wave is temperature dependent. Consequently, the speed of a sound wave traveling Òthrough the air at 68¼F (20¼C) is approximately 1130 feet per second (ft/sec)Ó (p. 38) and increases by 1.1 ft/sec with each 1¼F increase in temperature. As discussed, acoustic frequency measured in Hertz is defined as the number of complete cycles of a wave propagating during one second. Thus, a 60 Hz frequency (f = 60 Hz) completes 60 cycles per second while one cycle or period occurs every 1/60^{th} of a second (period = 1/f). The wavelength () can be expressed as the ratio between the velocity (v) and frequency (f) of the sound wave (). Therefore, a 60 Hz frequency sounding at a temperature of 68¼F yields a wave of length of approximately 18.83 feet.
French mathematician Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier is quoted as saying, ÒMathematics compares the most diverse phenomena and discovers the secret analogies that unite themÓ (University of St. Andrews Scotland, 2006). FourierÕs theorem states that, Òany complex waveform is the sum of sinusoidsÓ (Jayne, 2003). Sine waves, also called sinusoids, are periodic functions of the form: y = a sin b(x – c) + d or y = a cos b(x – c) + d (Hirsch & Schoen, 1985, p. 158). Because sound waves produced by acoustic musical instruments and vocalists are complex waveforms, FourierÕs theorem provides a visionary tool for the study and development of synthesized sound, electronic music, and audio engineering. Figure 12 illustrates mathematical expressions for elements of a sine function including amplitude, period, phase shift, and vertical shift. Figure 12 is based on the work detailed by Hirsch and Schoen (1985, p. 158).
Figure 12. The sine function
Sine function: y = a sin b(x – c) + d or y = a cos b(x – c) + d
Amplitude (musically referred to as volume): a
Period (one complete excursion of a sound wave): 2¹/b
Phase shift: c units to the right if c > 0 or c units to the left if c < 0
Vertical shift: d units up if d > 0 or d units down if d < 0
Figure
12. The figure details the mathematically elements and properties associated
with the sine function. Movement along the axis mentioned in the figure refers
to the xaxis and yaxis of the xy graph.
Loudness
Sound results when a vibrating body generates longitudinal waves that propagate through mediums such as air and water causing atmospheric disturbances. The healthy human ear perceives miniscule atmospheric disturbances as sound. In fact, Huber and Runstein (2005) point out that onemicrobar equals 1x10^{6 }(onemillionth) of standard atmospheric pressure and state that most people can hear atmospheric disturbances measuring 0.0002 microbar representing a change of 2x10^{10} (20billionths) in normal atmospheric pressure. In addition to being able to detect miniscule differences in atmospheric pressure, the range of human hearing extends from 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz (20k Hz).
One dyne (dyn) is defined as the energy required to force the acceleration of a mass
weighing one gram (g) by one centimeter (cm) per second squared (sec^{2})
(http://www.thefreedictionary.com/dyne, 2006). Huber and Runstein (2005) define soundpressure level (SPL) as the
amount of acoustic pressure Òbuilt up within an atmospheric areaÓ, typically
one square centimeter (cm^{2}). When measured in dyne, soundpressure
levels are expressed as the ratio dyn/cm^{2}.
One decibel (dB), named after Alexander Graham Bell and meaning Ò1/10^{th} of a bellÓ (Huber & Runstein, 2005, p. 52), represents a logarithmic value quantifying intensity differences between two energy levels including SPL, voltage (v), and wattage (w). The threshold of hearing, defined as the Òminimum sound pressure that produces the phenomenon of hearing in most peopleÓ (Huber and Runstein, p. 137), is defined as the soundpressure level reference (SPL_{ref})_{ }measured at 0 dB equivalent to the previously described change in atmospheric pressure measuring 2x10^{10} microbars. Huber and Runstein, Pierce (2006), and a host of sources detail the formula for computing an SPL rating in dB as: dB SPL = 20 log SPL/SPL_{ref}, where SPL_{ref} = 0.0002 dyn/cm^{2}. Since decibels measure the difference in intensity between two sources, computing the intensity difference between a sound level (sl) measuring 100 dyn/cm^{2} and a reference level (rl) measuring .01 dyn/cm^{2} can be accomplished by solving the expression, dB SPL = 20 log sl/rl, as demonstrated in Figure 13.
Figure 13. Comparison of sound level between a residence and an airline cabin.
Let the reference level (rl) = 0.01 dyn/cm^{2 }and
the sound level (sl) = 100 dyn/cm^{2}.
Solving for the dB intensity difference between
these two sound sources we find:
dB intensity difference SPL = 20 log (sl/rl)
dB intensity difference in SPL = 20 log (100/0.01)
dB intensity difference in SPL = 20 [log 100 – log 0.01]
dB intensity difference in SPL = 20 [2 – (2)]
dB intensity difference in SPL = 20 [4]
dB intensity difference in SPL = 80 dB
Figure
13. The figure illustrate a step by step method for finding the intensity
difference measured in decibels (dB) between two sound sources whose levels are
given in dyn/cm^{2}.
Alternatively, Vanderheiden (2006) asserts that a 20 dB difference in SPL represents a tenfold change in sound pressure. Using rules for logarithms to solve the expression 40 dB = 20 log x, we can describe the intensity associated with a 40 dB difference in sound level between an average residence, defined as 50 dB by Huber and Runstein (2005, p. 54), and a sound level of 90 dB produced inside the cabin of a commercial airplane (The Engineering ToolBox, 2005). Given the expression y = log_{b} x is equivalent to b^{y} = x (Umbarger, 2006, p.6), we discover that a 40 dB SPL increase is equivalent to a hundredfold change in SPL by solving the equation 40 dB = 20 log x (see Figure 14). Verifying the data displayed in Figure 13 we show that the 10,000fold change in intensity between the given reference level (rl = 0.01) and sound level (sl = 100) is equivalent to the solution of the logarithmic expression 80 dB = 20 log x (x = 104).
Figure 14. Change in sound level intensity
resulting from an increase of 40 dB SPL.
SPL increased by 40 dB
The variable x represents an xfold change in level intensity.
40 dB = 20 log x
2 = log x
x = 10^{2} = 100
Figure
14. The figure details a stepbystep method for finding the change in
intensity given the amount of change in decibels.
The
Geometry of Chords and Scales
Chords, defined as Òa combination of three or more pitches sounded simultaneouslyÓ (http://www.answers.com/topic/chord1, 2006), offer a harmonic framework for musicians performing musical ideas in an improvised fashion. The relationship between chords and scales can be expressed through a geometric lens. Musical notation specifies changes in pitch in a vertical manner and rhythm or time in a horizontal manner. Thusly, three or more notes sounding at a singular moment in time are notated vertically. Studying the notated F7 altered chord in the first measure of the musical staff in Figure 15 illustrates the chord as a vertical structure. In contrast, the F# melodic minor scale constructed from the notes defining the F7 altered chord displayed in measures two through nine of the staff in Figure 15 illustrates the horizontal nature of a scale. Therefore, musicians can conceptualize chords as vertical structures represented or defined by horizontal structures called scales when applying a geometric approach to improvisation.
Figure
15. Musical notation for the F7 altered chord and its corresponding scale.
Figure
15. The figure illustrates the vertical nature of an F7 altered chord and the
horizontal nature of the scale constructed from the tones of the chord. A scale
formed by a set of chord tones is often referred to as a chordscale. The
chordscale corresponding to an F7 altered chord is the ascending mode of the
F# melodic minor scale.
Set
Theory and Jazz Improvisation
As discussed, the equaltempered octave is divided into twelve semitones. Using set notation, the elements (notes) of the C chromatic scale set (Cchromatic) can be expressed as Cchromatic = {C, C#, D, Eb, E, F, F#, G, G#, A, Bb, B} (See Figure 16). The C Dorian scale (CDorian) can be expressed as a set containing seven elements (notes); CDorian = {C, D, Eb, F, G, A, Bb}. The set CDorian is a proper subset () of the set Cchromatic because every element () in CDorian is also an element of the set Cchromatic but Cchromatic contains elements that are not elements () of CDorian. Therefore, CDorian Cchromatic and {C#, E, F#, G#, B} CDorian. The elements of the set {C#, E, F#, G#, B} define the fifth mode of the E major pentatonic scale (Epentatonic = {E, F#, G#, B, C#}). Since the elements of set Epentatonic are not elements of the set CDorian, Epentatonic is the complement of set CDorian. Applying this information in a musical context provides a musician entrenched in a C Dorian tonality a set of notes with a strong and recognizable structure that will create harmonic and melodic tension when applied. Applying set theory in a musical context, E major pentatonic represents the harmonic structure most dissonant with C Dorian thus providing a creative tool useful when ÒstretchingÓ harmony or forcing one tonality onto another.
Figure
16. The C chromatic, C Dorian, and E major pentatonic scales.
Figure
16. The figure shows musical notation for the C chromatic, C Dorian, and E
major pentatonic scales in ascending fashion.
Often when improvising, musicians playing singlenote melodies strive to approximate or define a specific chord structure with a few notes. Set theory provides a useful method for achieving such an objective. Figure 17 displays musical notation for the C minor thirteenth chord set (Cmin13), the corresponding C Dorian (CDorian) chordscale set, three major pentatonic scale subsets of CDorian, and five additional threenote subsets of CDorian. Using set notation to express relationships detailed in Figure 17 we notice that CDorian is a subset of () Cmin13. The Bb pentatonic set C Dorian and the union () of the Eb and F pentatonic sets produces the C Dorian scale set (Eb pentatonic F pentatonic = C Dorian). The intersection () of set C (125) = {C, D, G} and Eb (125) = {Eb, F, Bb}, expressed C (125) Eb (125), renders the empty set () meaning that the sets have no elements in common. Musicians wanting to avoid note redundancy may benefit from the study and application of harmonic or scalar combinations of subsets whose intersections produce the empty set. Contrastingly, subsets containing common elements offer musicians tones common to those subsets while still affording the musician alternative note choices.
Figure
17. Music notation for subsets of the C minor thirteenth chord (Cmin13).
Figure
17. The figure displays music notation for a C minor thirteenth chord, the C
Dorian scale, the Eb, F, and Bb major pentatonic
scales, and five sets of three note series diatonic to C Dorian comprised of
major seconds and a perfect fourth (125).
Music
as Mathematics
Music notation specifies a precise occurrence in time of a distinct harmonic or melodic event or sequence of events. Simultaneously, music displayed on a staff can also detail changes in frequency (pitch), amplitude (volume), style, length, and speed over a prescribed period of time quantified in measures (bars) and beats. Rhythm, or event occurrence and sequence, is notated horizontally from left to right while pitch changes are notated vertically on a variety of staff systems typically containing five lines, each separated by one of four spaces. Musicians learn to translate information shown outside the staff through recognition of additional lines called ledger lines (see Figure 18). As do most initial staves or staves containing a variance in time signature of a musical work, the staff visible in Figure 18 also displays time signatures defining the number of beats (pulses) occurring in each bar and the type of rhythmic unit (note) equaling one beat. Time signatures are specified as positive integers or ratios greater than one (> 1) while counting number multiples of two define the default rhythmic value receiving or equaling one beat per measure. Mathematically speaking, musicians count or compute numeric data while interpreting and performing simultaneous and often frequent changes along related vertical and horizontal axis (see Figure 19).
Figure
18. Musical staff.
Figure
18. The figure displays a musical staff containing various time signatures,
notes within the staff, and notes located outside the staff defined by tangent
or embedded ledger lines. The suggested tempo is one hundred beats per minute
notated by the marking quarter note equals one hundred.
Figure
19. Musical staff with superimposed imaginary x and yaxis.
Figure
19. The figure illustrates a musical staff with superimposed imaginary x and
yaxis demarcating changes in pitch as vertical events along an imaginary
yaxis and changes in rhythm or time as horizontal events along an imaginary
xaxis.
In order to study musical data in a mathematical fashion one can convert musical rhythms into numbers or coordinates along an xaxis. For this discussion, the author will use Microsoft Excel to generate numerical values by defining the measure, beat, and note position of each musical event. Though the process can be tedious, the precise location of a recorded musical event can be defined using digital recording software such as DigidesignÕs Pro Tools. Digital recording and MIDI software divide one beat into ticks. For the purpose of this discussion, each beat will be divided into 960 ticks. Based on this information one can generate a numerical value for rhythmic events by adding the values for the measure number, the beat number, and tick position. In order to identify the location of a musical event occurring at measure one, beat one, and tick one of a measure containing four beats as 1.0 we can use the formula: measure number +(((beat number – 1) + (tick position/(4*960))).
Notes or pitches can be easily converted to numbers and consequent points on the yaxis by using their corresponding MIDI note numbers. Applying this technique enables us to convert musical notation (see Figure 20) to numerical data and input the data into Microsoft Excel in order to generate graphs and even equations for the general trend lines of the graphs. Though beyond the scope of this presentation, mathematicians proficient in calculus and differential equations can generate functions representing such graphs. Future study is needed to determine the musical consequences resulting from derivatives of musicbased functions.
Figure
20. Musical notation converted to numerical data and a corresponding graph.
Tenor
Note 
Piano
note 
Note
number 
Y
coordinate 
Measure 
Beat 
Tick 
X coordinate 
C4 
Bb3 
46 
14 
1 
1 
0 
1.000 
D4 
C3 
48 
12 
1 
1 
480 
1.125 
G4 
F3 
53 
7 
1 
2 
0 
1.250 
C5 
Bb4 
58 
2 
1 
2 
480 
1.375 
D5 
C4 
60 
0 
1 
3 
0 
1.500 
G5 
F 4 
65 
5 
1 
3 
480 
1.625 
C6 
Bb5 
70 
10 
1 
4 
0 
1.750 
D6 
C5 
72 
12 
1 
4 
480 
1.875 
G6 
F5 
77 
17 
2 
1 
0 
2.000 
D6 
C5 
72 
12 
2 
1 
480 
2.125 
C6 
Bb4 
70 
10 
2 
2 
0 
2.250 
G5 
F4 
65 
5 
2 
2 
480 
2.375 
D5 
C4 
60 
0 
2 
3 
0 
2.500 
C5 
Bb4 
58 
2 
2 
3 
480 
2.625 
G4 
F3 
53 
7 
2 
4 
0 
2.750 
D4 
C3 
48 
12 
2 
4 
480 
2.875 
C4 
Bb2 
46 
14 
3 
1 
0 
3.000 
Figure
20. The figure shows musical notation for a sequence of notes based on the
Dorian scale. The subsequent table details the process designed in Microsoft
Excel to convert the musical data into numbers and coordinates on the xygraph. The data is then graphed and a trend line and
corresponding function is calculated and graphed using ExcelÕs chart
function.
Math
and Musical Feel
Quantization is a process used by MIDI programmers to adjust the rhythmic placement or feel of a musical event. Computer software such as DigidesignÕs Pro Tools, Mark of the UnicornÕs Digital Performer, and PropellerheadÕs ReCycle allow musicians to manipulate both MIDI data and recorded audio in order to achieve a more precise performance of their creative vision. As a saxophonist and student of jazz one becomes keenly aware of differences and similarities in feel, style, and note choice between jazz musicians. Researching giants of jazz enables us to enjoy, examine, and analyze their contributions with intent to synthesize and apply this newly gained information in a unique manner. As a doctoral student one recognizes a similarity between empirical research and jazz improvisation. In fact, it is this colleagueÕs observation that jazz researchers (musicians) encounter a high degree of difficulty presenting their findings because their works must be delivered to audiences in an improvised fashion.
John Coltrane and Sonny Rollins are jazz giants who can be heard trading fourmeasure musical ideas on the Sonny Rollins Quarter 1956 Prestige Records release entitled Tenor Madness. In jazz lingo, an exchange of musical ideas alternating every four measures is called trading fours. Figures 21 and 22 display transcriptions of Coltrane and Rollins trading fours while improvising on Sonny RollinsÕ blues composition Tenor Madness.
Figure
21. Musical notation of transcribed musical phrases by John Coltrane.
Figure
21. The notation displays the musical notation for a series of fourmeasure
improvised phrases performed by John Coltrane during a recording with Sonny
Rollins.
Figure
22. Musical notation of transcribed musical phrases by Sonny Rollins.
Figure
22. The notation displays the musical notation for a series of fourmeasure
improvised phrases performed by Sonny Rollins during a
recording with John Coltrane.
Converting the recorded data into numbers using Pro Tools and Excel one finds that both Coltrane and Rollins placed their chosen notes in varying rhythmic positions. Table 3 shows the numerical data corresponding to the phrase played by Coltrane in measures 1113 (Figure 21) and the answering phrase played by Rollins in bars 1315 (Figure 22). These two phrases were chosen because of the similarity of note choices by the saxophonists and represent an example of call and response dialogue common during trading of musical ideas in jazz improvisation.
Table 3. Numerical representation of musical
phrases performed by John Coltrane and Sonny Rollins.
John Coltrane phrases measures 1113 (Figure 21) 
MIDI note number 
Yaxis coordinate 
Measure number 
Beat number (based on 4 measures per bar) 
Ticks position (based on 960 ticks per beat) 
Xaxis coordinate 
C4 
58 
2 
11 
1 
67 
11.02 
C4 
58 
2 
11 
1 
952 
11.25 
E4 
62 
2 
11 
2 
541 
11.39 
D4 
60 
0 
11 
3 
173 
11.55 
F4 
63 
3 
11 
3 
599 
11.66 
A4 
67 
7 
11 
4 
42 
11.76 
C5 
70 
10 
11 
4 
572 
11.90 
E4 
62 
2 
12 
1 
38 
12.01 
G4 
65 
5 
12 
1 
704 
12.18 
A4 
67 
7 
12 
1 
943 
12.25 
C5 
70 
10 
12 
2 
648 
12.42 
Bb4 
68 
8 
12 
4 
574 
12.90 
A4 
67 
7 
12 
4 
769 
12.95 
G4 
65 
5 
13 
1 
164 
13.04 







Sonny Rollins phrases measures 1113 (Figure 21) 
MIDI note number 
Yaxis coordinate 
Measure number 
Beat number (based on 4 measures per bar) 
Ticks position (based on 960 ticks per beat) 
Xaxis coordinate 
C4 
58 
2 
13 
1 
182 
13.05 
G3 
53 
7 
13 
1 
681 
13.18 
C4 
58 
2 
13 
2 
138 
13.29 
E4 
62 
2 
13 
2 
654 
13.42 
C4 
58 
2 
13 
3 
142 
13.54 
D4 
60 
0 
13 
3 
691 
13.68 
E4 
62 
2 
13 
3 
874 
13.73 
G4 
65 
5 
13 
4 
674 
13.93 
F4 
63 
3 
14 
1 
86 
14.02 
C4 
58 
2 
14 
1 
746 
14.19 
F4 
63 
3 
14 
2 
140 
14.29 
C4 
58 
2 
14 
2 
591 
14.40 
F#4 
64 
4 
14 
3 
19 
14.50 
G4 
65 
5 
14 
3 
667 
14.67 
A4 
67 
7 
14 
3 
940 
14.74 
C5 
70 
10 
14 
4 
560 
14.90 
D5 
72 
12 
15 
4 
765 
15.95 
E5 
74 
14 
15 
1 
197 
15.05 
C5 
70 
10 
15 
1 
829 
15.22 
Table
3. The table details the note choices and placements of musical phrases
improvised by John Coltrane and Sonny Rollins on the Impulse release entitled
Tenor Madness. The music was transcribed and then analyzed by the author using
DigidesignÕs Pro Tools software.
Inspecting the data we notice that Coltrane and Rollins place notes on similar beats of a bar in very different locations. If we divide each beat exactly in half, the first note would occur at tick zero while the second note would occur at tick 480. In this example, John Coltrane plays the note on beat one of measures 11 and 12 at tick positions 67 and 38 respectively. Sonny Rollins positions the notes performed on beat one of bars 13 and 14 on ticks 182 and 86 respectively. Though each musician varies the rhythmic placement of the note in random fashion, the general trend is for Coltrane to place his notes closer to the beginning of the beat than Rollins. In fact, Coltrane places the second note of his phrase on beat one, tick 952 slightly in advance of the second beat (see Table 3). Using jazz terminology, we could say that Sonny lays back while Coltrane plays more on top throughout the course of this musical dialogue. A possible cause for this tendency is that Rollins is responding to a statement by Coltrane. Further study should be conducted in order to better assess the general tendencies and causal effects inherent when reacting to a musical statement in an improvised manner. Additionally, the sample data is insufficient for purposes of a general trend regarding rhythmic placement by the musicians. A rigorous study of ColtraneÕs and RollinsÕ rhythmic tendencies may provide an interesting topic for extensive future research but is beyond the scope of this discussion.
The process used to analyze the information began by importing the commercially obtained audio recording available on compact disc (CD) into Pro Tools using the import audio feature. Since the original master is a mixed and mastered twotrack recording, it is difficult to isolate individual performances by musicians whose primary responsibility is generating and maintaining a steady tempo such as the bassist or drummer. Working to maintain a steady tempo in a traditional jazz setting, bassist Paul Chambers is playing one note at the start of each beat (http://www.allaboutjazz.com/php/article.php?id=23731). Using ChambersÕ performance as the guide for defining the distance between beats in order to calculate a tempo and produce a grid dividing the performance into quantifiable units requires isolation or enhancement of the bass frequencies. The bass frequency range produced by this recording extends from 40 Hz to well over 200 Hz. For purposes of this project, the author isolated the bass response of the original recording by applying a lowshelf equalizer (EQ) to enhance frequencies from 60 Hz to 150 Hz while simultaneously reducing all other frequencies. The equalized signal was then amplified and recorded onto a separate Pro Tools track. Using the newly created isolated bass track, a tempo map and grid were created by finding the start of each bass waveform (note) and calculating the tempo for each beat using the Pro Tools Beat Detective feature. Jazz musicians rarely record using a reference click track or tempo guide and thus tend to generate a variable tempo. In fact, rhythm section instruments such as the bass and drums often anchor the tempo helping to hold the ensemble together. Based on this knowledge, the author generated a reference tempo guide in order to study note placement by Coltrane and Rollins.
The subsequent findings detailed in this paper are for educational purposes only and in no way reflect an opinion about the quality of the performances by John Coltrane or Sonny Rollins. In this colleagueÕs opinion, these men are musical giants whose contributions serve as a guiding example of tangible musical results generated when creative talent, study, dedicated energy, and application are synthesized. Mathematics, as applied in this example, provides insight while celebrating the complexity and beauty of the creative mind.
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December 27, 2006, from the University New South Wales: Sydney, Australia: http://www.phys.unsw.edu.au/jw/notes.html
Appendix A
Major Scale Subsets
Appendix B
Dorian Mode Subsets
Appendix C
Melodic Minor Scale Subsets
Appendix D
Augmented Scale Subsets
Appendix E
Diminished Scale Subsets
Appendix F
Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star for Saxophone Quartet
Music arranged, performed, and recorded by Ed Calle
Appendix G
Audio Examples
All music featured in Appendix G was performed and recorded
by Ed Calle
Recorded at OneTake Studios, Miami, FL
Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star (Arranged by Ed Calle)
Equaltempered
tuning version
Pythagorean
tuning version
Doriana (Ed Calle, 2006) (36^{th} Street
Music/BMI)
Equaltempered
tuning version
Pythagorean
tuning version